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How many undisclosed zone of Government Information? Take a Look at How Citizens Fight Back!

Article by CHANG, SHU-CHEN | Edit by Open Culture Foundation (OCF)

Taiwan was ranked as the high quality Open Data government in 2015 and 2016 by “Global Open Data Index". However, since than, there is no further development and many open data sets are still lack of function. This October, Taiwan National Development Council suddenly announced the draft of “Open Data Act" is under discussion. Before we finally step into next stage, let us review what is really going on when citizen request the data from government.

In a day with nice weather, the Nanfang’ ao Bridge crumbles without warning. In fact, people do not know if the bridges they walk on daily are safe or not, since the maintenance records has not ever been revealed before. (Source of the photo: Military News Agency, Ministry of National Defense)

The public only realized that there was only one maintenance record of the Nanfang’ ao Bridge after the bridge crumbled on October 1, 2019. Moreover, the maintenance record was only partial, the maintenance work was incomplete, and the information was incorrect, either.

Why did the relevant information remain unobserved for so long? The Ministry of Transportation and Communications established the “Taiwan Bridge Management System (TBMS)” right after Gaoping Bridge crumbled as a result of illegal gravel mining and typhoon slamming in 2001. Although the related agencies are required to upload the maintenance records of all bridges in accordance to the system, the information has not been opened to the public, which makes it unable to be supervised by the public. People also have no idea about the safety of the bridges they are walking on daily.

Taiwan is always considered by its people as an open and democratic society. After the “Freedom of Government Information Law” has been executed for fourteen years, and Taiwan has retained top spot in “Global Open Data Index” two times in a row in 2015 and 2016, which all have become one of the prides of Taiwan. However, , the sensitive zone of significant government information that should be opened to the public remains in the dark side of this pride.

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總論: 開放資料三大難題,如何解?

文 | 張淑貞 ; 編輯 | 開放文化基金會

繼台灣在 2015、2016 年「全球開放資料指標」調查名列前茅、交出亮眼成績,去年(2019)5月行政院數位政委唐鳳在加拿大「開放政府夥伴聯盟」年會上,宣布台灣即將啟動「開放政府國家行動方案」研議工作,邀集各機關共同提出符合透明、課責、參與等核心價值的具體承諾,宣示台灣推動政府資訊透明的決心。同年10月國家發展委員會主委陳美伶也對外公布將在 2020 年底推出台灣的「開放資料專法草案」,邁向下一階段的數位轉型。開放、透明成為國家治理的標準關鍵字,但是在這股治理趨勢下,民間要取得政府資訊,進而使用政府資料來滿足公民參與的需求,仍然遇到許多困難,以公民所關注的社會議題來說,相關資訊的公開程度和範圍不足,也未達到「開放資料」的標準。

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踩到政府資訊不公開的雷區?看公民的進擊之路!

文 | 張淑貞 ; 編輯 | 開放文化基金會


風和日麗的一天,南方澳大橋無預警斷裂。實際上不只這座大橋,全台的橋梁檢修紀錄至今沒有對外公開,民眾無法知道自己每天走過的橋是否安全。(照片來源:國防部軍事新聞通訊社

2019 年10月1日,南方澳大橋坍塌事件發生後,外界才發現橋梁啟用至今只做了一次檢測,而且檢測項目不全,維修不完整,甚至資料也不正確。

為什麼這麼晚才發現呢?交通部其實早在 2001 年高屏大橋因為盜採砂石及颱風過境造成斷橋後,便已經建置「台灣地區橋梁管理資訊系統」,要求機關登載每一座大小橋梁的維護紀錄,但資料一直沒有對外公開,不僅外界無法進行監督,民眾也無法知道自己每天經過的大橋是否安全。

台灣一直自認為是開放和民主的國家,《政府資訊公開法》施行至今 14 年,加上 2015、2016 年二度在全球開放資料指標調查(Global Open Data Index)榮登第一,開放儼然成了台灣之光。但是在光的背後,仍然存在重要政府資訊應公開卻未公開的雷區。

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活用資料,打通環評的任督二脈

文 | 郭鴻儀; 編輯 | 開放文化基金會

從 2019年底,國發會不斷在記者會和新聞稿當中聲明, 2020 年將提出《開放資料專法》,成為政府推動開放資料以來另一大躍進,也讓過去以《政府資訊公開法》為基底的資訊釋出,有機會邁向真正的開放資料,也就是具互動性、無權利限制的開放格式資料公開。專法進入正式程序之前,讓我們再次審視現行資料釋出制度中,在面對環境議題時,有哪些狀況需要改善。

「取得資訊」能為我們解決什麼問題?或者說,對人類生活起了什麼樣的作用?除了單純滿足人類知的需求,取得資訊有助於人類行為的決策判斷、有利於瞭解特定事物,降低人類面對未知的恐懼。隨著近現代民主國家興起,人民開始透過要求政府資訊公開以及公共參與程序,強化對於國家行為的監督與制衡。聯合國在 1946 年 59 號決議中以及 1948 年《世界人權宣言》肯定資訊自由是基本人權,許多國家開始陸續以法律保障人民取得資訊的權利,政府資訊公開成為各國施政目標,而這些資訊有助於人民日常生活中對大、小事務的行為決策。

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老屋輓歌:龜速開放資料與倉促的文資審議程序

文|吳宗霈; 編輯 | 開放文化基金會

2016年《文化資產保存法》大修後終於擴大公民參與,為的就是希望民間高手能補足政府在文化資產 (以下稱文資) 調查和守護方面的人力缺口。再搭配開放政府政策,有越來越多陳年史料數位化、公開,私有古蹟的保存運動也就此遍地開花。「紅葉園(陳茂通宅)」是近期一件文資爭議案件,為了找回這棟房子近 80 年前的歷史,提報人是如何在散落的史料中找到關鍵資訊?未來還能如何在歷史建物的認證爭議中,找出更公開、公正的方案呢?

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Activate the Live of Opening Data in Environmental Impact process

By Kuo Hung-yi | Edit by Open Culture Foundation

Taiwan was ranked as the high quality Open Data government in 2015 and 2016 by “Global Open Data Index". However, since than, there is no further development and many open data sets are still lack of function. This October, Taiwan National Development Council suddenly announced the draft of “Open Data Act" is under discussion. Before we finally step into next stage, let us review what is really going on about Open Data in Taiwan in historical case and environmental case.

What problems can we solve by “obtaining information”? Or what role does it play in human life? In addition to simply meeting the human need to gain knowledge, access to information is helpful for our judgment in decision-making, good for understanding specific things, and conducive to reduce human fear in the face of the unknown. 

Intelligent humans can keep away from disasters by learning astronomy, meteorology, and geographical environment, and improve hunting techniques, food collection and even medical behavior by comprehending animal and plant ecology. Intelligent humans develop various communication methods to disseminate information or knowledge, learn abstract thinking, and establish complex systems of knowledge and culture, which has created the world of mankind today.

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Slowness of Opening Data and Rush of Identification Process Kills Historic Buildings in Taiwan.

Article by Perry Wu | Edit by Open Culture Foundation

Taiwan was ranked as the high quality Open Data government in 2015 and 2016 by “Global Open Data Index". However, since than, there is no further development and many open data sets are still lack of function. This October, Taiwan National Development Council suddenly announced the draft of “Open Data Act" is under discussion. Before we finally step into next stage, let us review what is really going on about Open Data in Taiwan in historical case and environmental case.

After the overhaul of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act in 2016, citizen participation finally became more extensive. The amendment of the law expected that experts from the private sector can make up for the government’s manpower gap in the investigation and protection of cultural heritage. As with the Open Government policy, more and more aged historical materials are digitized and open to the public, and the preservation movement of private monuments has flourished everywhere. Concerning the “Red Leaf Garden” (Chen Mao-tong Residence) case, a recent occurrence of cultural heritage dispute, how did the reporter find the key information in the scattered historical materials to rediscover the history of this house almost 80 years ago? How can we figure out a more open and fair solution in the dispute regarding the certification of historic buildings in time to come?

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房間裡科技巨頭與國家權力,2019 Rightscon 數位人權大會

rightscon 選擇在突尼西亞舉辦無疑有肯定其民主化的意義。

過去數年隨著科技公司掌握的流量與權力越來越大,以及人工智能等新科技的發展,如何使得這些巨頭以及國家的做法受到合理的問責成了當下全世界所急切思索的關鍵議題。從防火牆、搜尋引擎、海關通關系統等,人們對於新科技快速地運用感到越來越擔憂。

2019 年首度在中東北非地區的突尼西亞舉辦的數位人權大會(Rightscon),便以「在數位時代中堅持人權」為主題,將近三千位來自全世界各地的記者、政策制定者、NGO 工作者、學者等聚集在這三天中密集討論眾多圍繞在數位人權問題的各種議題,總共有超過 450 場工作坊、演講與會議。主辦單位 Access Now 是一個致力於開放自由網路的人權、公共政策、與倡議性之國際非營利組織。自 2009 年成立以來,Access Now 主要關著數位安全、言論自由、隱私、網路歧視、以及商業與人權等政策領域。

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